–China–the Boxer Rebellion. –Latin America and Free Trade Imperialism—The scramble brings new players. —The United States. —-Internal imperialism. —Rivalries and alliances-Independence movement leads to revolution (massmovement)–Latin America-middle class join elites or masses.
—The Constitution of 1917. -Independence deferred: India–Development of Indian Nationalist-divided nationalism b/w Hindu & MuslimIndustrialization-Recruitment of science in industrialization-Premier industries-Transportation, materials, electricity and communication-Standardizing work and workers. –The automobile and mass production; assembly line production;–scientific management; Time and motion studies. -communications; telegraph-Electric light and power systemsThe two faces of science in the industrial age.
Science and social uplift; Industrial science and monopoly capitalism. Modernization: Bourgeois liberalism: rule of law, contracts, rights; Industrial capitalism: free markets, free labor, mechanization, growth of professional classes. -Ottoman Turks indebted to France and Britain brings reforms. Financial infrastructure, class formation, urbanization.
-Lack of industrialization, and trade deficits. Young Ottomans and demands for constitution & parliament. -Western liberalism, Turkish nationalism, Islamic modernism. Globalization: Supplying the industrial west; creating an indigenous middle class, encouraging European bourgeois values. -Igniting indigenous nationalism and reform movements.
-Usually without mass support. N. Africa: Egyptian modernization under Muhammad Ali. The limits of modernization.
-The Revolution of 1857-8 and annexation; The emergence of middle-class. Indian nationalists; Formation of the Indian National Congress.-During the Opium War Chinese military weakness: modern weaponry-Industrial Revolution “quiet revolution”; Making use of surplus rural labor-Britain first: Population growth, market and social structure, religious dissent: the “Protestant work ethic.”Agricultural revolution, enclosure movement, rural poverty.Selective breeding, fertilization, land reclamationFuel sources: coal, tapping greater energy supplies.Capital resources: empire, trade, banks.Domestic peace (no wars on British soil).-The transportation & communications revolutions.turnpikes (roads); Canals; railroads; telegraph.-Urbanization and growth of municipal government.Explosion of new industrial cities; strain on infrastructure: water, sewerage, public health and safety.Huddled masses and poor relief-The industrial classes.–the professions.—The lunar societies; scientific/professional organizations.–The making of the working classes.Labor discipline and resistance.Trade unions.-The international spread of industry.–French industrialization: state expertise, private capital.–American industrialization: labor poor, resource rich.Elements of industrial culture.Standardization and mass production; free trade; wages and standards of living; marriage & family